Mangrove Wikipedia. A mangrove is a shrub or small tree that grows in coastal saline or brackish water. The term is also used for tropical coastal vegetation consisting of such species. A10.1038%2Fs41467-017-01306-9/MediaObjects/41467_2017_1306_Fig4_HTML.jpg' alt='Valiela Marine Ecological Processes Pdf File' title='Valiela Marine Ecological Processes Pdf File' />Mangroves occur worldwide in the tropics and subtropics, mainly between latitudes 2. N and 2. 5 S. The total mangrove forest area of the world in 2. Mangroves are salt tolerant trees and are adapted to life in harsh coastalsystem and complex root system to cope with salt water immersion and wave action. They are adapted to the low oxygen anoxic conditions of waterlogged mud. The word is used in at least three senses 1 most broadly to refer to the habitat and entire plant assemblage or mangal,2page needed for which the terms mangrove forest biome, and mangrove swamp are also used, 2 to refer to all trees and large shrubs in the mangrove swamp, and 3 narrowly to refer to the mangrove family of plants, the Rhizophoraceae, or even more specifically just to mangrove trees of the genus Rhizophora. The mangrove biome, or mangal, is a distinct saline woodland or shrubland habitat characterized by depositional coastal environments, where fine sediments often with high organic content collect in areas protected from high energy wave action. Mangrove swamps are found in tropical and subtropical tidal areas. Areas where mangal occurs include estuaries and marine shorelines. The intertidal existence to. Artculos de actualidad. Manglares ecosistema centinela frente al cambio climtico, Golfo de Mxico Mangrove swamps sentinel ecosystem in front of the climatic. The saline conditions tolerated by various mangrove species range from brackish water, through pure seawater 3 to 4, to water concentrated by evaporation to over twice the salinity of ocean seawater up to 9. EtymologyeditThe term mangrove comes to English from Spanish perhaps by way of Portuguese, and is likely to originate from Guarani. It was earlier mangrow from Portuguese mangue or Spanish mangle, but this word was corrupted via folk etymology influence of the word grove. Ecologyedit. The worlds mangrove forests in 2. Mangrove swamps are found in tropical and subtropical tidal areas. Areas where mangal occurs include estuaries and marine shorelines. The intertidal existence to which these trees are adapted represents the major limitation to the number of species able to thrive in their habitat. High tide brings in salt water, and when the tide recedes, solar evaporation of the seawater in the soil leads to further increases in salinity. The return of tide can flush out these soils, bringing them back to salinity levels comparable to that of seawater. At low tide, organisms are also exposed to increases in temperature and desiccation, and are then cooled and flooded by the tide. Thus, for a plant to survive in this environment, it must tolerate broad ranges of salinity, temperature, and moisture, as well as a number of other key environmental factorsthus only a select few species make up the mangrove tree community. About 1. 10 species are considered mangroves, in the sense of being a tree that grows in such a saline swamp,4 though only a few are from the mangrove plant genus, Rhizophora. However, a given mangrove swamp typically features only a small number of tree species. It is not uncommon for a mangrove forest in the Caribbean to feature only three or four tree species. For comparison, the tropical rainforest biome contains thousands of tree species, but this is not to say mangrove forests lack diversity. Though the trees themselves are few in species, the ecosystem that these trees create provides a home habitat for a great variety of other species. Mangrove plants require a number of physiological adaptations to overcome the problems of anoxia, high salinity and frequent tidal inundation. Each species has its own solutions to these problems this may be the primary reason why, on some shorelines, mangrove tree species show distinct zonation. Small environmental variations within a mangal may lead to greatly differing methods for coping with the environment. Therefore, the mix of species is partly determined by the tolerances of individual species to physical conditions, such as tidal inundation and salinity, but may also be influenced by other factors, such as predation of plant seedlings by crabs. Once established, mangrove roots provide an oyster habitat and slow water flow, thereby enhancing sediment deposition in areas where it is already occurring. The fine, anoxic sediments under mangroves act as sinks for a variety of heavy trace metals which colloidal particles in the sediments have scavenged from the water. Mangrove removal disturbs these underlying sediments, often creating problems of trace metal contamination of seawater and biota. Mangrove swamps protect coastal areas from erosion, storm surge especially during hurricanes, and tsunamis. The mangroves massive root systems are efficient at dissipating wave energy. Likewise, they slow down tidal water enough so its sediment is deposited as the tide comes in, leaving all except fine particles when the tide ebbs. In this way, mangroves build their own environments. Because of the uniqueness of mangrove ecosystems and the protection against erosion they provide, they are often the object of conservation programs, including national biodiversity action plans. However, mangrove swamps protective value is sometimes overstated. Wave energy is typically low in areas where mangroves grow,1. Their capacity to limit high energy wave erosion is limited to events such as storm surges and tsunamis. Erosion often occurs on the outer sides of bends in river channels that wind through mangroves, while new stands of mangroves are appearing on the inner sides where sediment is accruing. The unique ecosystem found in the intricate mesh of mangrove roots offers a quiet marine region for young organisms. In areas where roots are permanently submerged, the organisms they host include algae, barnacles, oysters, sponges, and bryozoans, which all require a hard surface for anchoring while they filter feed. Shrimps and mud lobsters use the muddy bottoms as their home. Mangrove crabs munch on the mangrove leaves, adding nutrients to the mangal muds for other bottom feeders. Easycap Dc60 Driver Windows 10. In at least some cases, export of carbon fixed in mangroves is important in coastal food webs. Cuteftp Pro 9 Serial Number'>Cuteftp Pro 9 Serial Number. Mangrove plantations in Vietnam, Thailand, Philippines and India host several commercially important species of fishes and crustaceans. Despite restoration efforts, developers and others have removed over half of the worlds mangroves in recent times. Mangrove forests can decay into peat deposits because of fungal and bacterial processes as well as by the action of termites. It becomes peat in good geochemical, sedimentary and tectonic conditions. The nature of these deposits depends on the environment and the types of mangrove involved. In Puerto Rico the red Rhizophora mangle, white Laguncularia racemosa and black Avicennia germinans mangroves occupy different ecological niches and have slightly different chemical compositions so the carbon content varies between the species as well between the different tissues of the plant e. In Puerto Rico there is a clear succession of these three trees from the lower elevations which are dominated by red mangroves to farther inland with a higher concentration of white mangroves. Mangrove forests are an important part of the cycling and storage of carbon in tropical coastal ecosystems. Using this it is possible to attempt to reconstruct the environment and investigate changes to the coastal ecosystem for thousands of years by using sediment cores.
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