Microsoft Word Wikipedia. Microsoft Word is a word processor developed by Microsoft. It was first released on October 2. Multi Tool Word for Xenix systems. Subsequent versions were later written for several other platforms including IBM PCs running DOS 1. Apple Macintosh running Classic Mac OS 1. AT T Unix PC 1. Atari ST 1. OS2 1. Microsoft Windows 1. SCO Unix 1. 99. 4, and mac. OS 2. 00. 1. Commercial versions of Word are licensed as a standalone product or as a component of Microsoft Office, Windows RT or the discontinued Microsoft Works suite. Microsoft Word Viewer and Office Online are freeware editions of Word with limited features. Excel 2007 provides a simple solution for users who want to open all Excel files in separate windows. To access this setting, open Microsoft Excel. Word for Windows is available standalone or as part of the Microsoft Office suite. Word contains rudimentary desktop publishing capabilities and is the most widely. HistoryeditOriginseditIn 1. Microsoft hired Charles Simonyi, the primary developer of Bravo, the first GUIword processor, which was developed at Xerox PARC. Simonyi started work on a word processor called Multi Tool Word and soon hired Richard Brodie, a former Xerox intern, who became the primary software engineer. Microsoft announced Multi Tool Word for Xenix8 and MS DOS in 1. Its name was soon simplified to Microsoft Word. Free demonstration copies of the application were bundled with the November 1. PC World, making it the first to be distributed on disk with a magazine. That year Microsoft demonstrated Word running on Windows. Unlike most MS DOS programs at the time, Microsoft Word was designed to be used with a mouse. Advertisements depicted the Microsoft Mouse, and described Word as a WYSIWYG, windowed word processor with the ability to undo and display bold, italic, and underlined text,1. It was not initially popular, since its user interface was different from the leading word processor at the time, Word. Microsoft Excel 2007 For Windows 7 64 Bit' title='Microsoft Excel 2007 For Windows 7 64 Bit' />Star. However, Microsoft steadily improved the product, releasing versions 2. In 1. 98. 5, Microsoft ported Word to Mac OS. This was made easier by Word for DOS having been designed for use with high resolution displays and laser printers, even though none were yet available to the general public. Following the precedents of Lisa. Write and Mac. Write, Word for Mac OS added true WYSIWYG features. It fulfilled a need for a word processor that was more capable than Mac. Write. 1. 7 After its release, Word for Mac OSs sales were higher than its MS DOS counterpart for at least four years. The second release of Word for Mac OS, shipped in 1. Word 3. 0 to synchronize its version number with Word for DOS this was Microsofts first attempt to synchronize version numbers across platforms. Word 3. 0 included numerous internal enhancements and new features, including the first implementation of the Rich Text Format RTF specification, but was plagued with bugs. Within a few months, Word 3. Word 3. 0. 1, which was mailed free to all registered users of 3. After Mac. Write Pro was discontinued in the mid 1. Word for Mac OS never had any serious rivals. Word 5. 1 for Mac OS, released in 1. Many users say it is the best version of Word for Mac OS ever created. In 1. 98. 6, an agreement between Atari and Microsoft brought Word to the Atari ST1. Microsoft Write. The Atari ST version was a port of Word 1. Mac OS2. 02. 1 and was never updated due to the outstanding degree of software piracy on the Atari platform. The first version of Word for Windows was released in 1. With the release of Windows 3. Microsoft soon became the market leader for word processors for IBM PC compatible computers. In 1. Microsoft capitalized on Word for Windows increasing popularity by releasing a version of Word for DOS, version 5. Windows application. When Microsoft became aware of the Year 2. Microsoft Word 5. DOS available for download free. As of March 2. 01. Microsofts web site. In 1. 99. 1, Microsoft embarked on a project code named Pyramid to completely rewrite Microsoft Word from the ground up. Both the Windows and Mac OS versions would start from the same code base. It was abandoned when it was determined that it would take the development team too long to rewrite and then catch up with all the new capabilities that could have been added in the same time without a rewrite. Instead, the next versions of Word for Windows and Mac OS, dubbed version 6. Word for Windows 2. With the release of Word 6. Microsoft again attempted to synchronize the version numbers and coordinate product naming across platforms, this time across DOS, Mac OS, and Windows this was the last version of Word for DOS. It introduced Auto. Correct, which automatically fixed certain typing errors, and Auto. Format, which could reformat many parts of a document at once. While the Windows version received favorable reviews e. Info. World2. 5, the Mac OS version was widely derided. Many accused it of being slow, clumsy and memory intensive, and its user interface differed significantly from Word 5. In response to user requests, Microsoft offered Word 5 again, after it had been discontinued. Subsequent versions of Word for mac. OS are no longer direct ports of Word for Windows, instead featuring a mixture of ported code and native code. Word for WindowseditWord for Windows is available stand alone or as part of the Microsoft Office suite. Word contains rudimentary desktop publishing capabilities and is the most widely used word processing program on the market. Word files are commonly used as the format for sending text documents via e mail because almost every user with a computer can read a Word document by using the Word application, a Word viewer or a word processor that imports the Word format see Microsoft Word Viewer. Word 6 for Windows NT was the first 3. Microsoft Office for Windows NT around the same time as Windows 9. It was a straightforward port of Word 6. Starting with Word 9. Word were named after the year of its release, instead of its version number. Word 2. 01. 0 allows more customization of the Ribbon,2. Backstage view for file management,3. Word Web App. 3. 2Word for Macedit. Microsoft Word 2. OS XIn 1. 99. 7, Microsoft formed the Macintosh Business Unit as an independent group within Microsoft focused on writing software for Mac OS. Its first version of Word, Word 9. Office 9. 8 Macintosh Edition. Document compatibility reached parity with Word 9. Word 9. 7 for Windows, including spell and grammar checking with squiggles. Users could choose the menus and keyboard shortcuts to be similar to either Word 9. Windows or Word 5 for Mac OS. Word 2. 00. 1, released in 2. Office Clipboard, which allowed users to copy and paste multiple items. It was the last version to run on classic Mac OS and, on Mac OS X, it could only run within the Classic Environment. Word X, released in 2. Mac OS X, and introduced non contiguous text selection. Word 2. 00. 4 was released in May 2. It included a new Notebook Layout view for taking notes either by typing or by voice. Other features, such as tracking changes, were made more similar with Office for Windows. Word 2. 00. 8, released on January 1. Ribbon like feature, called the Elements Gallery, that can be used to select page layouts and insert custom diagrams and images. Roger Taylor Electric Fire Rar more. It also included a new view focused on publishing layout, integrated bibliography management, and native support for the new Office Open XML format. It was the first version to run natively on Intel based Macs. Word 2. 01. 1, released in October 2. Improving Performance in Excel 2. This section covers specific tips for optimizing many of the most frequently occurring bottlenecks. Forward Referencing and Backward Referencing. To increase clarity and avoid errors, design your formulas so that they do not refer forward to the right or below to other formulas or cells. Forward referencing usually does not affect calculation performance, except in extreme cases for the first calculation of a workbook, where it might take longer to establish a sensible calculation sequence if there are many formulas that need to have their calculation deferred. Links Between Workbooks. Avoid inter workbook links wherever possible they are slow, easily broken, and not always easy to find and fix. Using fewer larger workbooks is usually but not always better than using many smaller workbooks. Some exceptions to this might be when you have a lot of front end calculations that are so rarely recalculated that it makes sense to put them in a separate workbook, or when you do not have enough RAM. Try to use simple direct cell references that work on closed workbooks. By doing this, you can avoid recalculating all your linked workbooks whenever you recalculate any workbook. Also, you can see the values Excel has read from the closed workbook, which is frequently important for debugging and auditing the workbook. If you cannot avoid using linked workbooks, try to have them all open rather than closed, and open the workbooks that are linked to before you open the workbooks that are linked from. Links Between Worksheets. Using many worksheets can make your workbook easier to use, but generally it is slower to calculate references to other worksheets than references within worksheets. In Excel 9. 7 and Excel 2. With these versions, it is very important to name the worksheets in a sequence that matches the flow of calculations between worksheets. Minimizing the Used Range. To save memory and reduce file size, Excel tries to store information about the area only on a worksheet that has been used. This is called the used range. Sometimes various editing and formatting operations extend the used range significantly beyond the range that you would currently consider used. This can cause performance bottlenecks and file size bottlenecks. You can check the visible used range on a worksheet by using CTRLEND. Where this is excessive, you should consider deleting all the rows and columns below and to the right of your real last used cell and then saving the workbook. Be sure to make a backup copy first. If you have formulas with ranges that extend into or refer to the deleted area, these ranges will be reduced in size or changed to NA. Allowing for Extra Data. When you frequently add extra rows or columns of data to your worksheets, you need to find a way of having your Excel formulas automatically refer to the new data area, instead of trying to find and change your formulas every time. You can do this by using a large range in your formulas that extends well beyond your current data boundaries. However, this can cause very inefficient calculation under some circumstances, and it is difficult to maintain because deleting rows and columns can shrink the range without you noticing. Excel 2. 00. 7 Structured Table References. In Excel 2. 00. 7, you can use structured table references, which automatically expand and contract as the size of the referenced table increases or decreases. This solution has several advantages There are fewer performance disadvantages than the alternatives of whole column referencing and dynamic ranges. It is easy to have multiple tables of data on a single worksheet. Formulas that are embedded in the table also expand and contract with the data. Whole Column and Row References. An alternative approach is to use a whole column reference, for example A A. This reference returns all the rows in Column A, so you can add as much data as you want, and the reference will always include it. This solution has both advantages and disadvantages Many Excel built in functions SUM, SUMIF calculate whole column references efficiently because they automatically recognize the last used row in the column. However, array calculation functions like SUMPRODUCT either cannot handle whole column references or calculate all the cells in the column. User defined functions do not automatically recognize the last used row in the column and therefore tend to calculate whole column references very inefficiently. However, it is easy to program user defined functions so that they recognize the last used row. It is difficult to use whole column references when you have multiple tables of data on a single worksheet. Array formulas in versions before Excel 2. In Excel 2. 00. 7, array formulas can handle whole column references, but this forces calculation for all the cells in the column, including empty cells. This can be extremely slow to calculate, especially for 1 million rows. Dynamic Ranges. By using the OFFSET and COUNTA functions in the definition of a named range, you can make the area that the named range refers to dynamically expand and contract. For example, create a defined name as follows. OFFSETSheet. 1A1,0,0,COUNTASheet. A A,1. When you use the dynamic range name in a formula, it automatically expands to include new entries. There is a performance hit because OFFSET is a volatile function and therefore is always recalculated, and because the COUNTA function inside the OFFSET has to examine a large number of rows. You can minimize this performance hit by storing the COUNTA part of the formula in a separate cell, and then referring to the cell in the dynamic range. Counts z. 1COUNTASheet. A A. Dynamic. RangeOFFSETSheet. A1,0,0,CountsZ1,1. You can also use functions such as INDIRECT to construct dynamic ranges. Dynamic ranges have both advantages and disadvantages Dynamic ranges work very well to limit the number of calculations done by array formulas. Using multiple dynamic ranges with a single column requires special purpose counting functions. Using a large number of dynamic ranges can be a performance hit. Lookups. Lookups are frequently significant calculation bottlenecks. Fortunately, there are many ways of improving lookup calculation time. If you use the exact match option, the calculation time for the function is proportional to the number of cells scanned before a match is found. For lookups over large ranges, this time can be very significant. Lookup time using the approximate match options of VLOOKUP, HLOOKUP, and MATCH on sorted data is fast and is not significantly increased by the length of the range you are looking up. Characteristics are the same as binary search. Lookup Options. Ensure that you understand the matchtype and range lookup options in MATCH, VLOOKUP, and HLOOKUP. MATCHlookup value, lookup array, matchtype. Matchtype1 returns the largest match less than or equal to the lookup value if the lookup array is sorted ascending approximate match. This is the default option. Matchtype0 requests an exact match and assumes that the data is not sorted. Matchtype 1 returns the smallest match greater than or equal to the lookup value if the lookup array is sorted descending approximate match. VLOOKUPlookup value, table array, col index num, range lookup. HLOOKUPlookup value, table array, row index num, range lookup. Range lookupTRUE returns the largest match less than or equal to the lookup value approximate match.
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