Insular cortex Psychology Wiki. Assessment. Biopsychology. Developmental. Individual differences. Social Methods. Professional items. Start studying Psychology. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The worlds leading online source of ebooks, with a vast range of ebooks from academic, popular and professional publishers. Definition. The following definitions of motivation were gleaned from a variety of psychology textbooks and reflect the general consensus that motivation is an. Gmail is email thats intuitive, efficient, and useful. GB of storage, less spam, and mobile access. Hunger Games And Cognitive Psychology' title='Hunger Games And Cognitive Psychology' />Psychology is the study of the human mind and human behavior. Chapter 1 Introducing Psychology Chapter 2 Psychological Research Methods and Statistics. Welcome to The All About Psychology Book of The Month page. Only the best, fascinating and most compelling psychology books will be featured here. This paper, coauthored with James S. Simkin in 1981, was the Gestalt Therapy chapter in the 1989 edition of Corsini and Weddings Current Psychotherapies 4th Edition. Hunger Games And Cognitive Psychology' title='Hunger Games And Cognitive Psychology' />World psychology. Biological Behavioural genetics. Evolutionary psychology. Neuroanatomy. Neurochemistry. Neuroendocrinology. Neuroscience. Psychoneuroimmunology. Physiological Psychology. Motivation. Motivation is a piviotal concept in most theories of learning. It is closely related to attention, anxiety, and grit. For example, a person needs. Sugden, R Zheng, J Zizzo, D 2013 Not all anchors are created equal. Journal of Economic Psychology 39 2013 2131. Table of Contents Cognition Consumer Psychology Cyber Psychology Developmental Educational Psychology Emotions Environmental Forensic Psychology Gender. Psychopharmacology. Index, Outline. In each hemisphere of the mammalianbrain the insular cortex often called insula, insulary cortex or insular lobe is a portion of the cerebral cortex folded deep within the lateral sulcus the fissure separating the temporal lobe from the parietal and frontal lobes. The insulae are believed to be involved in consciousness and play a role in diverse functions usually linked to emotion or the regulation of the bodys homeostasis. These functions include perception, motor control, self awareness, cognitive functioning, and interpersonal experience. In relation to these it is involved in psychopathology. The insular cortex is divided into two parts the larger anterior insula and the smaller posterior insula in which more than a dozen field areas have been identified. The cortical area overlying the insula towards the lateral surface of the brain is the operculum meaning lid. The opercula are formed from parts of the enclosing frontal, temporal and parietal lobes. The insular cortex is also known by the name Island of Reil, named after Johann Christian Reil. Its Latin name is lobus insularis. The insula was first described by Johann Christian Reil while describing cranial and spinal nerves and plexi. Henry Gray in Grays Anatomy is responsible for it being known as the Island of Reil. The insular cortex is considered a separate lobe of the telencephalon by some authorities. Marathi Songs Sites List more. It is also sometimes grouped with limbic structures deep in the brain into a limbic lobe. Contrasting anterior and posterior architecture Edit. It has regions of variable cell structure or cytoarchitecture, changing from granular in the posterior portion to agranular in the anterior portion. The insula also receives differential cortical and thalamic input along its length. The anterior insula receives a direct projection from the basal part of the ventral medial nucleus VMb of the thalamus and a particularly large input from the central nucleus of the amygdala. Additionally, the anterior insula itself projects to the amygdala. The posterior insula connects reciprocally with the secondary primary sensory cortex S2 and receives input from spinothalamically activated ventral posterior inferior VPI thalamic nuclei. More recent work by Bud Craig and his colleagues has shown that this region receives inputs from the ventromedial nucleus posterior part of the thalamus that are highly specialized to convey emotionalhomeostatic information such as pain, temperature, itch, local oxygen status and sensual touch. Functions. Edit. Interoceptive awareness. Edit. The right anterior insula aids interoceptive awareness of body states, such as the ability to time ones own heart beat. Moreover, greater right anterior insular gray matter volume correlates with increased accuracy in this subjective sense of the inner body, and with negative emotional experience. M4a Format Bollywood Songs more. It is also involved in the control of blood pressure,4 particularly during and after exercise,4 and its activity varies with the amount of effort a person believes they are exerting. The insular cortex also is where the sensation of pain is judged as to its degree. Further, the insula is where a person imagines pain when looking at images of painful events while thinking about them happening to ones own body. Those with irritable bowel syndrome have abnormal processing of visceral pain in the insular cortex related to dysfunctional inhibition of pain within the brain. Another perception of the right anterior insula is the degree of nonpainful warmth1. Other internal sensations processed by the insula include stomach or gastric distension. A full bladder also activates the insular cortex. One brain imaging study suggest that the unpleasantness of subjectively perceived dyspnea is processed in the right human anterior insula and amygdala. The cerebral cortex processing vestibular sensations extends into the insula1. Other noninteroceptive perceptions include passive listening to music,1. Motor control. Edit. In motor control it contributes to hand and eye motor movement,2. It has been identified as a central command centre that ensures that heart rate and blood pressure increase at the onset of exercise. Research upon conversation links it to the capacity for long and complex spoken sentences. It is also involved in motor learning3. Homeostasis. Edit. In homeostasis it controls autonomic functions through the regulation of the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems. It has a role in regulating the immune system. It has been identified as playing a role in the experience of bodily self awareness,3. Social emotions. Edit. The anterior insular processes a persons sense of disgust both to smells4. This associates with a mirror neuron like link between external and internal experience. In social experience it is involved in the processing of norm violations,4. Emotions Edit. Template Refimprove section. The insular cortex, in particular its most anterior portion, is considered a limbic related cortex. The insula has increasingly become the focus of attention for its role in body representation and subjective emotional experience. In particular, Antonio Damasio has proposed that this region plays a role in mapping visceral states that are associated with emotional experience, giving rise to conscious feelings. This is in essence a neurobiological formulation of the ideas of William James, who first proposed that subjective emotional experience i. This is an example of embodied cognition. Functionally speaking, the insula is believed to process convergent information to produce an emotionally relevant context for sensory experience. More specifically, the anterior insula is related more to olfactory, gustatory, vicero autonomic, and limbic function, while the posterior insula is related more to auditory somesthetic skeletomotor function. Functional imaging experiments have revealed that the insula has an important role in pain experience and the experience of a number of basic emotions, including anger, fear, disgust, happiness and sadness. Specifically, the anterior insular cortex AIC is believed to be responsible for emotional feelings, including maternal and romantic love, anger, fear, sadness, happiness, sexual arousal, disgust, aversion, unfairness, inequity, indignation, uncertainty, disbelief, social exclusion, trust, empathy, sculptural beauty, a state of union with God, and hallucinogenic state. Functional imaging studies have also implicated the insula in conscious desires, such as food craving and drug craving. What is common to all of these emotional states is that they each change the body in some way and are associated with highly salient subjective qualities. The insula is well situated for the integration of information relating to bodily states into higher order cognitive and emotional processes.
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