Capsicum Wikipedia. This article is about the plant genus. For the variety known as capsicum in some countries, see Bell pepper. Check the Eligibility for Subsidy of Your Enterprise. SECTOR Manufacturing Service. Editors Message Namaste Its only appropriate that I open this years magazine with that salutation. After all, this is the 2011 edition of the annual. Tamil Gun Pro Watch or download movies online. Find popular, top and now playing movies here. Watch movies with HD Quality. Watch or download the movies directly on. Capsicum 3 also known as peppers is a genus of flowering plants in the nightshade family Solanaceae. Its species are native to the Americas, where they have been cultivated for thousands of years. Following the Columbian Exchange, it has become cultivated worldwide, and it has also become a key element in many cuisines. In addition to use as spices and food vegetables, Capsicum species have also been used as medicines and lachrymatory agents. Etymology and nameseditThe generic name may come from Latincapsa box, presumably alluding to the pods or the Greek word kapto to gulp. The name pepper comes from the similarity of the flavor to black pepper, Piper nigrum, although there is no botanical relationship with it or with Sichuan pepper. The original term, chilli now chile in Mexico came from the Nahuatl word chlli, denoting a larger Capsicum variety cultivated at least since 3. BC, as evidenced by remains found in pottery from Puebla and Oaxaca. The fruit of Capsicum plants have a variety of names depending on place and type. Green Lantern 2011 In Tamil' title='Green Lantern 2011 In Tamil' />The piquant spicy varieties are commonly called chili peppers, or simply chilis. The large, mild form is called red bell pepper, green bell pepper, or just bell pepper depending on color in North America and United Kingdom and typically capsicum in New Zealand,8Australia, Singapore and India. The fruit is called paprika in some other countries although paprika can also refer to the powdered spice made from various capsicums. Growing conditionseditIdeal growing conditions for peppers include a sunny position with warm, loamy soil, ideally 2. C 7. 0 to 8. 4 F, that is moist but not waterlogged. Extremely moist soils can cause seedlings to damp off and reduce germination. The plants are sensitive to frost. Drama in India has had a rich glorious tradition. It begins its journey with the Sanskrit plays. Indian tradition preserved in the Natyasastra. For flowering, Capsicum is a non photoperiod sensitive crop. The flowers can self pollinate. However, at extremely high temperature, 9. F 3. 3 to 3. 8 C, pollen loses viability, and flowers are much less likely to pollinate successfully. Species and varietiesedit. Red peppers in Cachi Argentina air drying before being processed into powder. Capsicum consists of 2. C. annuum, C. baccatum, C. C. frutescens, and C. Phylogenetic relationships between species have been investigated using biogeographical,1. Fruits of Capsicum can vary tremendously in color, shape, and size both between and within species, which has led to confusion over the relationships among taxa. Chemosystematic studies helped distinguish the difference between varieties and species. For example, C. baccatum var. C. baccatum var. pendulum, which led researchers to believe the two groups belonged to the same species. Many varieties of the same species can be used in many different ways for example, C. This same species has other varieties, as well, such as the Anaheim chiles often used for stuffing, the dried ancho also sometimes referred to as poblano chile used to make chili powder, the mild to hot jalapeo, and the smoked, ripe jalapeo, known as chipotle. Peru is thought to be the country with the highest cultivated. Green Lantern 2011 In Tamil' title='Green Lantern 2011 In Tamil' />Capsicum diversity since varieties of all five domesticates are commonly sold in markets in contrast to other countries. Bolivia is considered to be the country where the largest diversity of wild. Capsicum peppers are consumed. Bolivian consumers distinguish two basic forms ulupicas, species with small round fruits including C. C. cardenasii, C. C. caballeroi landraces and arivivis, with small elongated fruits including C. C. chacoense varieties. Most of the capsaicin in a pungent hot pepper is concentrated in blisters on the epidermis of the interior ribs septa that divide the chambers, or locules, of the fruit to which the seeds are attached. A study on capsaicin production in fruits of C. Green Lantern 2011 In Tamil' title='Green Lantern 2011 In Tamil' />Pun. C. The amount of capsaicin in hot peppers varies significantly among varieties, and is measured in Scoville heat units SHU. The worlds current hottest known pepper as rated in SHU is the Carolina Reaper, which had been measured at over 2,2. SHU. Species listeditSources 2. Formerly placed hereeditGeneticseditMost Capsicum species are 2n2x2. A few of the non domesticated species are 2n2x3. All are diploid. The Capsicum annuum and Capsicum chinense genomes were completed in 2. The Capsicum annuum genome is approximately 3. Gb, making it larger than the human genome. Over 7. 5 of the pepper genome is composed of transposable elements, mostly Gypsy elements, distributed widely throughout the genome. The distribution of transposable elements is inversely correlated with gene density. Pepper is predicted to have 3. Solanaceae family. BreedingeditMany types of peppers have been bred for heat, size, and yield. Along with selection of specific fruit traits such as flavor and color, specific pest, disease and abiotic stress resistances are continually being selected. Breeding occurs in several environments dependent on the use of the final variety including but not limited to conventional, organic, hydroponic, green house and shade house production environments. Several breeding programs are being conducted by corporations and universities. In the United States, New Mexico State University has released several varieties in the last few years. Cornell University has worked to develop regionally adapted varieties that work better in cooler, damper climates. Other universities such as UC Davis, University of Wisconsin Madison, and Oregon State University have smaller breeding programs. Many vegetable seed companies breed different types of peppers as well. Productionedit. Fresh chili pepper production by country in 2. In 2. 01. 3, global production of both green and dried chili pepper was 3. China alone. 2. 6India was the top producer of dry peppers, producing 1. Install A Vm Prior To Running This Program Cannot Run. Worldwide pepper productioneditNutritioneditPeppers are highly nutritious. They have more Vitamin C than an orange, and a typical bell pepper contains more than 1. Vitamin C. They also have relatively high amounts of Vitamin B6. Fresh fruit is 9. Dried pepper fruit has a much different nutritional value due to the dehydration and concentration of vitamins and minerals. Capsaicin in CapsicumeditFor more details on this topic, see Capsaicin. The fruit of most species of Capsicum contains capsaicin methyl n vanillyl nonenamide, a lipophilic chemical that can produce a strong burning sensation pungency or spiciness in the mouth of the unaccustomed eater. Most mammals find this unpleasant, whereas birds are unaffected. The secretion of capsaicin protects the fruit from consumption by insects2. Capsaicin is present in large quantities in the placental tissue which holds the seeds, the internal membranes, and to a lesser extent, the other fleshy parts of the fruits of plants in this genus. The seeds themselves do not produce any capsaicin, although the highest concentration of capsaicin can be found in the white pith around the seeds. The amount of capsaicin in the fruit is highly variable and dependent on genetics and environment, giving almost all types of Capsicum varied amounts of perceived heat. The most recognizable Capsicum without capsaicin is the bell pepper,3. Capsicum annuum, which has a zero rating on the Scoville scale.
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